Traumi sportivi più frequenti e come prevenirli

Most frequent sports injuries and how to prevent them

  1. The most frequent sports injuries
  2. Injuries: What are the most harmful sports?
  3. Sports injury prevention tips
  4. FLOKY biomechanical stockings for injury prevention

Over 20 million Italians practice one or more sports, of which almost 25% train assiduously. Men are more active (41.2%) than women (27.7%), with a peak of diffusion of sports practice reached in the pre-adolescent age (70.3%) and decreasing percentages as age increases. The most popular sport is the gym, including gymnastics, aerobics, fitness and physical culture, practiced by a quarter of sportsmen. Followed by football and water sports. But sport isn't just about wellness and fitness: something can go wrong.

In fact, there are just under 300,000 sports injuries that occur every year, counting only visits to the emergency room and not those who, for example, go directly to the orthopedic or physiotherapist. Injuries affect both those who practice sport at an amateur level and those who compete at a professional level. But what are the most common sports injuries?

The most frequent sports injuries

Sports injuries can be acute or chronic events, and, in the first case, divided into contact and non-contact trauma. They can be caused by injuries of different entities: on the one hand they fall into the category of direct trauma (or macrotrauma) and on the other into that of overload trauma (or repeated microtrauma). Most sports injuries involve muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, while more rarely are broken bones or damage to internal organs reported. They usually heal in a few days without having to resort to a doctor's intervention or taking muscle or other anti-inflammatory drugs, but if the pain is very severe, it is good to contact a doctor as soon as possible.


It occurs when an organ (or tissue) undergoes a compression which produces the crushing of the soft parts, with a modest leakage of blood from the capillaries towards the tissues. It can be mild or directly affect the muscles: in the first case it may be sufficient to apply ice, while in the second case additional rest may be necessary.


It occurs as a result of abrupt movements, such as after placing the foot incorrectly on the ground or landing badly after a jump. Based on the severity of the trauma, it is classified into 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree. In the case of mild sprains, it is important to apply ice to the injured part and suspend sports activity. If the trauma was more complex, however, the intervention of a specialist is required.


It almost always occurs following a fall or a violent game collision. It is a rather serious injury that involves breaking the affected bone. Depending on the type of fracture and the part involved, it may require immobilization for a minimum of 20 days and, in the most serious cases, it may require surgery to reposition the bones to their original position.

Tendon overload

When tendon structures are involved, three types of lesion can occur: insertional tendinopathies, typical of the patellar tendon and rotator cuff; peritendinitis or inflammation of the peritendinous structures; tendinosis, degenerative conditions in the absence of inflammation with cartilaginous metaplasia and calcifications.

Joint overload

Joint overload can mainly affect the knee or, in the upper limbs, the shoulder and elbow. In the first case it is divided between intra-articular lesions, typical of skiers; patellar lesions and iliotibial rub syndrome. In the second case, it may be subacromial impingement or elbow rubbing syndrome.

Muscle overload

Muscle overload pathologies concern the muscle fibers and are divided between contractures, elongations of the fiber cells (commonly known as "strains"), myofascial syndrome or muscle rupture (better known as "tear") with evident extravasation of blood (hematoma) .

Injuries: What are the most harmful sports?

In sports that involve contact, such as football, rugby or boxing, accidents due to accidental collisions are very frequent, as well as muscle tears and sprains, up to concussions and head trauma. In tennis, epicondylitis (or "tennis elbow") is very common, while in sports where jumping and changes of direction are frequent (such as volleyball and basketball), knee injuries often occur. Rotator cuff injuries are common in water polo and volleyball. In general, the most frequent injuries affect the ankle, knee, head, hand and wrist. But which sport is most likely to be injured?

If you look at the absolute data, football is the sport that accounts for the highest number of injuries (46%): mainly ankle and knee sprains and foot and head bruises. The incidence of injuries related to basketball and volleyball is much lower (around 7-8%). If, on the other hand, we observe the injuries linked to a single body district and the correlation to each type of sport, the statistics are very different. For example, of ankle injuries, more than half are related to badminton. Among those with the knee, those who practice ski mountaineering have the worst. Volleyball and basketball players are at risk for the hand and wrist. While the head is more affected among hockey players.

Sports injury prevention tips

To avoid injuries, whether you practice assiduously or occasionally, good pre-workout physical preparation is essential, with warm-up and stretching exercises. Other suggestions are:

  • Choose a sport suitable for your physical structure and aptitude;
  • Don't neglect the warm-up or cool-down at the end of the workout;
  • Avoid excessive workloads and gradually increase efforts;
  • Check the correctness of the technical gesture;
  • Use appropriate sportswear, both during and after sports activity, for recovery;
  • Allow time for your body to properly heal and recover from previous injuries;
  • Follow diagnostic-therapeutic-rehabilitative pathways including control routines, drugs, surgery, physiotherapy and careful re-athletization.

FLOKY biomechanical stockings for injury prevention

FLOKY is a unique accessory of its kind, designed for sports and for those who play sports: functional technical socks studied on the principles of applied biomechanics to bring benefits to athletes at all levels of preparation. FLOKY socks, available for sports such as running, cycling, trekking, tennis and much more, are able to improve athletic performance and at the same time prevent body wear and injuries during physical activity , thanks to innovative screen printing applications.

  • There structure of the stocking on the tibial part with the mechanical elastic effect print, it reduces vibrations and stabilizes the tibial/fibular area.
  • There non-slip print increases adherence to the shoe, without moving the foot inside it, reducing the risk of sprains and increasing proprioception.
  • The Tape System it acts like a second tendon, reducing vibrations and preserving the Achilles tendon from possible microtraumas and inflammations.

Protection from arm injuries with the biomechanical cuff

NO-STRAIN is the first biomechanical sleeve designed to reduce the vibrations that cause inflammatory problems and arm injuries. It protects, stabilizes and supports the elbow, forearm and all tendon and muscle parts, providing immediate relief from vibrational stress and a reduction of inflammatory disorders and injuries.


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